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                        5 Cultural Dimensions

                        Geert Hofstede

                         
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                        In the 1980ies Geert Hofstede discovered 5 fundamental dimensions of national cultures that can be seen to illustrate different values in different national cultures. This discovery was made through utilizing factor analysis techniques on samples drawn from the multinational corporation IBM.

                         

                        The dimensions found by Geert Hofstede can be used to illustrate which values lie deeply embedded in people from different cultures. These values may have consequences for how people in different cultures behave, and how they will potentially behave in a work related context.

                         

                        The five values found by Geert Hofstede are:

                         

                        1. Power Distance
                        2. Uncertainty Avoidance
                        3. Masculinity vs. Femininity
                        4. Individualism vs. Collectivism
                        5. Long vs. Short Term Orientation

                        Power Distance

                        In cultures with low power distance, people are likely to expect that power is distributed rather equally, and are furthermore also likely to accept that power is distributed to less powerful individuals. As opposed to this, people in high power distance cultures will likely both expect and accept inequality and steep hierarchies.

                                                                   

                        Uncertainty Avoidance

                        Uncertainty Avoidance is referring to a lack of tolerance for ambiguity and a need for formal rules and policies. This dimension measures the extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations. These uncertainties and ambiguities may e.g. be handled by an introduction of formal rules or policies, or by a general acceptance of ambiguity in the organizational life.

                        The majority of people living in cultures with a high degree of uncertainty avoidance, are likely to feel uncomfortable in uncertain and ambiguous situations.

                        People living in cultures with a low degree of uncertainty avoidance, are likely to thrive in more uncertain and ambiguous situations and environments.

                         

                        Masculinity vs. Femininity

                        These values concern the extent on emphasis on masculine work related goals and assertiveness (earnings, advancement, title, respect et.), as opposed to more personal and humanistic goals (friendly working climate, cooperation, nurturance etc.)

                        The first set of goals is usually described as masculine, whereas the latter is described as feminine. These goals and values can, among other, describe how people are potentially motivated in cultures with e.g. a feminine or a masculine culture.

                         

                        Individualism vs. Collectivism

                        In individualistic cultures people are expected to portray themselves as individuals, who seek to accomplish individual goals and needs. In collectivistic cultures, people have greater emphasis on the welfare of the entire group to which the individual belongs, where individual wants, needs and dreams are often set aside for the common good.

                         

                        Long vs. Short Term Orientation

                        Long-Term Orientation is the fifth dimension, which was added after the original four dimensions. This dimension was identified by Michael Bond and was initially called Confucian dynamism. Geert Hofstede added this dimension to his framework, and labeled this dimension long vs. short term orientation .

                        The consequences for work related values and behavior springing from this dimension are rather hard to describe, but some characteristics are described below.

                         

                        Long term orientation:

                              Acceptance of that business results may take time to achieve

                              The employee wishes a long relationship with the company

                         

                        Short term orientation:

                              Results and achievements are set, and can be reached within timeframe

                              The employee will potentially change employer very often.

                         

                         

                         

                        Geert Hofstede has made scores for the following countries:

                         

                        The scores of each country can be found on Geert Hofstede's webpage www.geert-hofstede.com

                         

                        Country

                        Arab World

                        Argentina

                        Australia

                        Austria

                        Austria

                        Bangladesh

                        Belgium

                        Brazil

                        Bulgaria

                        Canada

                        Chile

                        China

                        Colombia

                        Costa Rica

                        Czech Republic

                        Denmark

                        East Africa

                        Ecuador

                        El Salvador

                        Estonia

                        Finland

                        France

                        Germany

                        Greece

                        Guatemala

                        Hong Kong

                        Hungary

                        India

                        Indonesia

                        Iran

                        Ireland

                        Israel

                        Italy

                        Jamaica

                        Japan

                        Luxembourg

                        Malaysia

                        Malta

                        Mexico

                        Morocco

                        Netherlands

                        New Zealand

                        Norway

                        Pakistan

                        Panama

                        Peru

                        Philippines

                        Poland

                        Portugal

                        Romania

                        Russia

                        Singapore

                        Slovakia

                        South Africa

                        South Korea

                        Spain

                        Surinam

                        Sweden

                        Switzerland

                        Taiwan

                        Thailand

                        Trinidad

                        Turkey

                        United Kingdom

                        United States

                        Uruguay

                        Venezuela

                        Vietnam

                        West Africa

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         

                         
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                        Date Created: 2009-09-16
                        Posted by: Admin
                         
                         
                        5 Cultural Dimensions
                         

                        Related resources:

                        What are Fons Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions?
                        Edgar H. Schein's Model of Organizational Culture
                        National Culture Vs. Organizational Culture
                        Reference(s)
                         
                        Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations
                        Hofstede, Geert; (2001); Sage Publications
                        Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and its Importance for Survival
                        Hofstede, Geert; (1991); McGraw-Hill
                        Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values
                        Hofstede, Geert; (1980); Sage
                        Keywords:

                        Online MBA, Online MBA Courses, Geert Hofstede, Cultural Dimensions, Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity and Femininity, Individualism and Collectivism, Long and Short Term Orientation

                         






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